Treatment Of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Dexmedetomidine Vs Diazepam In A Hospital O'horán
The cessation of alcohol consumption of people suffering from alcohol abuse frequently leads to the development of an alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS).
The ethylic suppression syndrome is defined as the appearance of two or more data of autonomic hyperactivity, nausea, hallucinations and seizures associated with the cessation of alcohol consumption. For its evaluation, the CIWA-Ar scale is used, which guides the treatment based on benzodiazepines but with many adverse effects, so sedatives have been tried, among them dexmedetomidine, an alpha-agonist with action in the locus caeruleus, with variable results. Objectives: The investigators aimed to compare the DEX vs. Diazepam, for moderate disease, applying the CIWA-Ar scale, in participants with severe to moderate AWS. Methodology: 40 participants with CIWA-Ar greater than 10 points, the investigators are collected and randomized into two groups: one under treatment with diazepam (Group Diazepam) and another with dexmedetomidine (Group Dexmedetomidine), until the CIWA-Ar was reduced to less than 10, and adverse effects the investigators also reported. The analysis was done with student t. Results: The average duration of treatment with diazepam was 5.5 days (IC 95 = 6.6-3.8), the average duration of treatment with dexmedetomidine was 3.1 days (95% CI = 4.5-1.7), with a significant difference ( p = 0.0016). In the group with diazepam 60% presented adverse effects and in the group with dexmedetomidine 25% presented them, with a significant difference (p = 0.04). Conclusion: dexmedetomidine was superior to diazepam for the treatment of moderate-severe alcohol withdrawal with fewer adverse effects.
KEY WORDS: Alcohol dependence · Alcohol withdrawal syndrome · Dexmedetomidine · Diazepam · Benzodiazepines
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome AWS (Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome), is defined as the appearance of two or more data of autonomic hyperactivity, nausea, hallucinations and seizures associated with cessation of alcohol consumption. For its evaluation, the CIWA-Ar (Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol) scale is used, which guides the treatment based on benzodiazepines but a disadvantage is the related adverse effects, for which other pharmacological strategies of sedation have been tried, among them Dexmedetomidine (DEX).
The investigators aimed to compare the DEX vs. Diazepam, for moderate disease, applying the CIWA-Ar scale, in participants with severe to moderate AWS (Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome).
Prior authorization from the ethics committee of O'Horán Hospital, Yucatán, Mexico. No. Registration CEI-011-1-17, and signature of informed consent. A randomized clinical trial was carried out in the Adult Emergencies service during the period July 2017-July 2018. Forty participants with CIWA-Ar greater than 10 points participated. The administration of:
A) Diazepam 5-20 mg IV. B) DEX 0.2-0.7 mcg / Kg / min., until the CIWA-Ar scale decreases to <10.
The investigators are excluded minor patients, mild CIWA-Ar category, previous medication, participants with severe cranial encephalic trauma (TBI) or mechanical ventilation requirement, with chronic liver failure category C in the Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification.
The CIWA Ar scale average for admission was 23 points, the lowest of 10 points and the highest of 38 points. The average number of days consuming alcohol prior to hospital admission was 131.9, with the highest average in the group that used dexmedetomidine; the average number of days after having suspended the intake until hospital admission was 1.7 days, being slightly higher in the group that used diazepam; the shortest time was 6 hours and the longest of a week without being related to the CIWA Ar score.
The average duration of treatment with diazepam was 5.5 days (IC 95 = 6.6-3.8), The average duration of treatment with dexmedetomidine was 3.1 days (95% CI = 4.5-1.7) After applying t student a significant difference was found in the number of days in favor of dexmedetomidine (p = 0.0016)
The investigators found that DEX at conventional doses, for the treatment of moderate-severe alcohol withdrawal in terms of reducing the CIWA-Ar scale, in fewer days and with fewer adverse effects and complications.
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Experimental studies and single case reports suggest the α2-agonist dexmedetomidine is effective in managing the autonomic symptoms seen with alcohol withdrawal.
diazepam start with 5-20 mg IV as a dose response, steps until a maximum dose of 120 mg diazepam.
Dexmedetomidine. Dexmedetomidine use 400 mcg in 100 cc 0.9% physiological solution in continuous infusion starting at a dose of 0.2 mcg / kg / hr titrating until reaching a decrease in the adrenergic response, with a maximum dose of 0.7 mcg / kg / hr7. Dosage form: DEX 0.2-0.7 mcg/Kg/min.
Dosage form: Diazepam 5-10 mg IV, steps until a maximum dose of 120 mg diazepam
Inclusion Criteria: Patients who received dexmedetomidine during their Emergency stay Patients who received diazepam during their Emergency stay CIE-10 codes consistent with alcohol withdrawal during hospitalization CIWA-A score >10 points Exclusion Criteria: comorbid disease, including several with CNS trauma or cerebrovascular accidents, one with end-stage metastatic carcinoma, and one patient with severe sepsis.