Acute Nutritional Ketosis in VLCAD Deficiency
Acute Nutritional Ketosis in VLCAD Deficiency: Testing the Metabolic Base for Therapeutic Use
To test if a ketone-ester based drink can boost muscle mitochondrial function in vivo in patients with VLCADD in order to establish a rational basis for therapeutic use in this disorder.
Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a common symptom in very long-chain acylCoA dehydrogenase deficient (VLCADD) patients. Failing muscle ATP homeostasis, due to impaired fatty acid oxidation, is the most likely cause. Therefore, supplementation with an alternative energy substrate to boost ATP homeostasis, such as an exogenous ketone ester (KE) drink, could be a therapeutic option. Previous results suggest that KE is preferentially oxidized in the tricyclic acid (TCA) cycle and improves physical endurance in athletes. Our primary objective is to test if KE boosts muscular ATP homeostasis in VLCADD patients to establish a rational basis for therapeutic use.
VLCADD patients will be included in a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled, 2-way cross-over trial. Prior to each test, patients receive a KE drink or an isocaloric carbohydrate equivalent, and completed a 35 min cycling test on an upright bicycle, followed by 10 minutes of supine cycling inside a MR scanner. The protocol will be repeated after at least one week with the opposite drink.
395 mg of ketone ester/kg
35 min cycling test on an upright bicycle, followed by 10 minutes of supine cycling inside a MR scanner.
biopsy from the quadriceps muscle prior to and immediately after upright bicycling
1H MR images and 31P MR spectra were acquired from the upper leg prior to-, during and after exercise
Oral intake of ketone ester drink muscle biopsy exercise muscle biopsy Magnetic Resonance imaging
Inclusion Criteria: - Confirmed VLCADD by genetic profiling Exclusion Criteria: contraindications for MRI studies (assessed by standardised questionnaire as previously used in METC 08-267/K; see UMCG section F METC documents) inability to perform bicycle exercise. recent episode of rhabdomyolysis, or treatment for acute renal failure in the past 2 months. intercurrent illness which may influence exercise tolerance (anaemia, musculoskeletal injury, or other undiagnosed illness under investigation). known coronary artery disease, positive history for angina, or changes on ECG suggestive of previous ischaemia without a negative stress test. insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. loss of, or an inability to give informed consent. pregnancy or current breastfeeding, or females not taking the oral contraceptive pill (this is due to the variability in hormonal patterns and substrate levels with different parts of the menstrual cycle). any other cause which in the opinion of the investigators, may affect the volunteers ability to participate in the study.