Comparative Evaluation of PUSPENs and C&Cs
Comparing Health & Social Outcomes Between Opioid-Dependent Individuals in Compulsory Drug Rehabilitation Centers and Voluntary Drug Treatment Clinics in Klang Valley, Malaysia
  • Phase

  • Study Type

  • Status

  • Intervention/Treatment

    methadone ...
  • Study Participants

This observational study compares the health and social outcomes between opioid-dependent individuals who are either recently released from a compulsory drug detention center (CDDC) or recently discharged from a voluntary treatment center (VTC) providing methadone maintenance therapy, in Malaysia.
In July 2010, the National Anti-Drug Agency of Malaysia (NADA) introduced a non-punitive system of treatment and care for people who use drugs, voluntary treatment centers (VTCs), called 'Cure & Care' clinics, offering free methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) to opioid-dependent drug users. These centers were opened alongside existing compulsory drug detention centers (CDDCs), where people who use drugs continue to be detained involuntarily without access to evidence-based treatment. Given that both of these programs are operated by NADA but espouse vastly different responses to drug use, we compared health and social outcomes between opioid-dependent individuals recently released from CDDCs and recently initiated into MMT in the new VTCs.
Study Started
Aug 31
Primary Completion
Sep 30
Study Completion
Sep 30
Last Update
Mar 03

Drug Methadone

Compulsory Drug Detention Center None

Conventional drug treatment in Malaysia and Southeast Asia including detention for an average of 2 years, including educational and job skills programs and physical education. Medical therapies for treating substance use disorders, such as opioid-agonist treatment (OAT), are unavailable.

Voluntary Treatment Center None

Voluntary drug treatment facilities, called 'Cure and Care' centers in Malaysia, that provide methadone maintenance therapy in addition to psychosocial interventions, recreational programming, and vocational training, among other activities.


The study will be conducted among opioid-dependent individuals initiating MMT in C&C Centers and opioid-dependent individuals being released from Pusat Serenti who consent to participating in the study.


Inclusion Criteria:

Meets Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV criteria for opioid dependence
Physically and psychologically capable of understanding and undergoing informed consent process
Within 90 days of release or discharge and intending to return to Klang Valley region
For VTC arm, came to the C&C to start MMT
No Results Posted