High-Dose Weekly Carfilzomib Plus Cyclophosphamide and Dexamethasone in the Treatment of Relapsed Multiple Myeloma
A Single Arm Phase II Study of High-Dose Weekly Carfilzomib Plus Cyclophosphamide and Dexamethasone in the Treatment of Relapsed Multiple Myeloma After 1-3 Prior Therapies
  • Phase

    Phase 2
  • Study Type

  • Study Participants

The purpose of this study is to find out what effects carfilzomib has on relapsed multiple myeloma when administered in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone.
Multiple Myeloma is a cancer that affects the bone marrow where the cells in our blood system are formed. This includes the white cells, red cells, platelets and lymphoid cells. In multiple myeloma the plasma cell (one of the lymphoid cells) starts to reproduce out of control. This results in crowding of the bone marrow with abnormal production of all the cells and a malfunction of the plasma cells. They can also cause damage to the normal bone resulting in pain, fractures and other complications.

The standard or usual treatments for your disease are lenalidomide (an immunomodulatory drug) or bortezomib (a proteasome inhibitor) based treatments.

Carfilzomib is a new type of proteasome inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of relapsed multiple myeloma in the United States.
Study Started
Mar 29
Primary Completion
Jun 19
Study Completion
Feb 01
Results Posted
Mar 03
Last Update
Feb 08

Drug Carfilzomib

Drug Cyclophosphamide

Drug Dexamethasone

Carfilzomib plus cyclophosphamide plus dexamethasone Experimental

20 mg/m2 day 1 of first cycle then escalated to 70 mg/m2 for all subsequent doses) given on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28 day cycle plus weekly oral dexamethasone (< 70 years, 40 mg; ≥ 70 years 20mg) and cyclophosphamide 300 mg/m2 capped at 500 mg


Inclusion Criteria:

Relapsed symptomatic multiple myeloma as per the International Myeloma Working group criteria [Palumbo 2009].

Measurable disease, as defined by one or more of the following (assessed within 21 days prior to registration):

Serum M-protein ≥ 5 g/L (0.5g/dL)
Urine Bence-Jones protein ≥ 200 mg/24 hours
Involved serum free light chain (FLC) measurement ≥ 100 mg/L (10 mg/dL), provided serum FLC ratio is abnormal (abnormal if FLC ratio is <0.26 or >1.65)
Biopsy proven plasmacytoma
For IgA patients whose disease can only be reliably measured by serum quantitative immunoglobulin (qIgA) ≥ 750 mg/dL (0.75 g/dL)
Prior treatment with at least one, but no more than three, regimens for multiple myeloma
Documented relapse or progressive disease on or after any regimen (subjects refractory to the most recent line of therapy are eligible except those who are refractory to bortezomib and cyclophosphamide as described in exclusion criteria 1.
Achieved a response to at least one prior regimen (defined as ≥ 25% decrease in M-protein)
Age ≥ 18 years.
Life expectancy ≥ 3 months.
ECOG performance status 0-2.
Laboratory Requirements (must be done within 21 days of registration):


Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 1.0 × 10^9/L
Hemoglobin ≥ 8 g/dL (80 g/L) (subjects may be receiving red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in accordance with institutional guidelines)
Platelet count ≥ 50 × 10^9/L, independent of platelet transfusions for 7 days. (≥ 30 × 10^9/L if myeloma involvement in the bone marrow is ≥ 50%)


ALT ≤ 3.5 x UNL
Serum direct bilirubin ≤ 2 mg/dL (34 μmol/L) (only required if total bilirubin ≥ 2mg/dL (34μmol/L)
Creatinine clearance (CrCl) ≥ 30 mL/minute (Crockcroft and Gault formula) and not on dialysis.
Patient consent must be appropriately obtained in accordance with applicable local and regulatory requirements. Each patient must sign a consent form prior to enrollment in the trial to document their willingness to participate.
Patients must be accessible for treatment and follow up. Patients registered on this trial must be treated and followed at the participating centre.
In accordance with CRO policy, protocol treatment is to begin within 2 working days of patient registration.
Women/men of childbearing potential must have agreed to use a highly effective contraceptive method.

Exclusion Criteria:

Refractory to any proteasome inhibitor therapy (bortezomib, ixazomib, etc.) Refractory disease is defined as failure to respond to the proteasome inhibitor, initial response followed by progression while on a proteasome inhibitor, or relapse within 60 days of stopping proteasome inhibitor therapy.
Prior carfilzomib treatment.
POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, and skin changes)
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia or IgM myeloma
Current or previous Plasma cell leukemia defined as (> 2.0 × 10^9/L circulating plasma cells by standard differential)
Chemotherapy or investigational agent within 3 weeks prior to registration or antibody therapy within 6 weeks prior to registration
Radiotherapy to multiple sites within 28 days prior to registration; localized radiotherapy to a single site within 7 days prior to registration
Plasmapheresisis within 14 days of registration.
Pregnant or lactating females.
Major surgery within 21 days prior to registration.
Active, uncontrolled bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.
Concurrent amyloidosis
Known human immunodeficiency virus infection.
Active hepatitis B or C infection.
Myocardial infarction within 4 months prior to registration, NYHA Class III or IV heart failure, uncontrolled angina, history of severe coronary artery disease, severe uncontrolled ventricular arrhythmias, sick sinus syndrome, or electrocardiographic evidence of acute ischemia or grade 3 conduction system abnormalities unless subject has a pacemaker.
Uncontrolled hypertension or uncontrolled diabetes within 14 days prior to registration.
Other malignancy, including MDS, within the past 3 years with the exception of adequately treated basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell skin cancer, or thyroid cancer; carcinoma in situ of the cervix or breast; prostate cancer of Gleason Score 6 or less with stable prostate-specific antigen levels; or cancer considered cured by surgical resection or unlikely to impact survival during the duration of the study, such as localized transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder or benign tumours of the adrenal or pancreas.
Significant neuropathy (≥ grade 3, or grade 2 with pain) within 14 days prior to registration.
Known history of allergy to Captisol® (a cyclodextrin derivative used to solubilize carfilzomib).
Contraindication to any of the required concomitant drugs or supportive treatments, including hypersensitivity antiviral drugs, or intolerance to hydration due to preexisting pulmonary or cardiac impairment.
Ongoing graft-versus-host disease.
Subjects with pleural effusions requiring thoracentesis or ascites requiring paracentesis within 14 days prior to registration.
Any other clinically significant medical disease or condition that, in the Investigator's opinion, may interfere with protocol adherence or a subject's ability to give informed consent.


Carfilzomib Plus Cyclophosphamide Plus Dexamethasone

All Events

Event Type Organ System Event Term Carfilzomib Plus Cyclophosphamide Plus Dexamethasone

Overall Response Rate After 4 Cycles

Response rate to protocol treatment after 4 cycles is define by stringent complete response, complete response, partial response, very good partial response, minimal response. Complete response: Negative immunofixation on the serum and urine and Disappearance of any soft tissue plasmacytomas and < 5% plasma cells in bone marrow biopsy Stringent complete response: Complete response plus Absence of clonal cells in bone marrow d by immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence Very good partial response: Serum and urine M-protein detectable by immunofixation but not on electrophoresis or ≥90% reduction in serum M-protein with urine M-protein level <100 mg/24 hours. Partial response: ≥50% reduction in serum M-protein and reduction in 24-hour urinary M-protein by ≥90% or to <200 mg/24 hours Minimal response: 25-49% reduction in serum M-protein, and 50-89% reduction in 24-hour urinary M-protein, if ≥ 200 mg/24 hours at baseline

Carfilzomib Plus Cyclophosphamide Plus Dexamethasone

Progression-free Survival

Median time to progression or death assessed by biochemistry, radiology and immunology tests will be reported. Progression is evaluated in this study using the International Myeloma Working Group Uniform Response Criteria (IMWG-URC) with any one or more of the following: Increase of ≥ 25% from lowest response value in: Serum M-component and/or Urine M-component and/or Only in patients without measurable serum and urine M-protein levels; the difference between involved and uninvolved FLC levels or Bone marrow plasma cell percentages. Definite development of new bone lesions or soft tissue plasmacytomas or definite increase in the size of existing bone lesions or soft tissue plasmacytomas Development of hypercalcemia (corrected serum calcium > 11.5 mg/dL (0.115 g/L) or 2.65 mmol/L) that can be attributed solely to the plasma cell proliferative disorder.

Carfilzomib Plus Cyclophosphamide Plus Dexamethasone

months (Median)
95% Confidence Interval: 13.57 to 21.49

Overall Survival

Median time to death in months will be reported

Carfilzomib Plus Cyclophosphamide Plus Dexamethasone

months (Median)
95% Confidence Interval: 22.05 to 33.8

Age, Continuous

years (Median)
Full Range: 44.0 to 82.0

Race (NIH/OMB)

Region of Enrollment

Sex: Female, Male

Overall Study

Carfilzomib Plus Cyclophosphamide Plus Dexamethasone

Drop/Withdrawal Reasons

Carfilzomib Plus Cyclophosphamide Plus Dexamethasone