Local Anesthetic Nebulization and Instillation for Pain Control After Laparoscopic Surgery
Double Blind Randomized Phase III Controlled Trial Comparing the Effect of Intraperitoneal Nebulization of Ropivacaine With Intraperitoneal Instillation of Ropivacaine on Pain Control After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
Studies evaluating intraperitoneal local anesthetic instillation for pain relief after laparoscopic procedures have provided conflicting results. This randomized, double-blind study was designed to assess the effects of a novel intraperitoneal local anesthetic administration technique using nebulization on pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Studies evaluating intraperitoneal local anesthetic (LA) instillation for pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy have provided conflicting results. One of the factors that might contribute to failure of the instillation technique may be related to inadequate distribution of local anesthetic throughout the peritoneal surface. In contrast, nebulization should provide a uniform spread of drugs throughout the peritoneal cavity and thus may be beneficial to improve pain relief after laparoscopic procedures. A recent study reported that bupivacaine nebulization significantly reduced pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared with bupivacaine instillation in the gallbladder bed. However, these investigators used a custom-made nebulization system that needs a separate gas source and tubing that is cumbersome and may not be easily available.
Recently, the investigators reported that a microvibration-based nebulization device (Aeroneb Pro® system, Aerogen, Galway, Ireland) could be used for ropivacaine delivery into the insufflation gas required to create pneumorpeitoneum. The investigators hypothesized that intraperitoneal ropivacaine nebulization would provide superior pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy than intraperitoneal ropivacaine instillation. This randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trial was designed to assess the analgesic efficacy of ropivacaine nebulization using the Aeroneb Pro® device laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared with intraperitoneal ropivacaine instillation.
Nebulization grou received intraperitoneal instillation of saline 20 ml on the gall bladder after induction of pneumoperitoneum but before dissection of gall bladder plus intraperitoneal nebulization of ropivacaine 1% 3 ml (30 mg) the start of gall bladder dissection and again at the end of surgery just before deflation of pneumoperitoneum (total of 60 mg). The first ropivacaine nebulization was performed over 5-6 minutes using the Aeroneb Pro® device through the umbilical port while the other ports were being inserted, while second nebulization was performed before the withdrawal of the ports
Instillation group received intraperitoneal instillation of ropivacaine 0.5%, 20 ml (100 mg) on the gall bladder after induction of pneumoperitoneum but before dissection of gall bladder plus and intraperitoneal nebulization of normal saline 3 ml before the start of gall bladder dissection and again at the end of surgery just before deflation of pneumoperitoneum. The first saline nebulization was performed over 5-6 minutes using the Aeroneb Pro® device through the umbilical port while the other ports were being inserted, while second nebulization was performed before the withdrawal of the ports
Inclusion Criteria: ASA Score I-III Scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy Free from pain in preoperative period Not using analgesic drugs before surgery Without cognitive impairment or mental retardation Written informed consent Exclusion Criteria: Emergency/urgency surgery Postoperative admission in an intensive care unit Cognitive impairment or mental retardation Progressive degenerative diseases of the CNS Seizures or chronic therapy with antiepileptic drugs Severe hepatic or renal impairment Pregnancy or lactation Allergy to one of the specific drugs under study Acute infection or inflammatory chronic disease Alcohol or drug addiction