Joint Application of Human Insulin and Rapid Insulin Analogue in Control of Postprandial Glycemia
Postprandial glycemic control is essential for diabetes compensation. Insulin pump therapy control blood glucose released in response to both high and low glycemic index carbohydrates in a mixed diet using normal, square and dual-wave boluses. The investigators hypothesize a mixture of rapid insulin analogue and human insulin has the same effect.
This pilot prospective cohort study replaces basal-bolus therapy of diabetic subjects by combined prandial application of insulin aspart and human insulin. Mixed-meals with high, both high and low and low glycemic index carbohydrates are covered by 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 ratios of analogue to human insulin mixture. Subjects are followed by continuous glucose monitor for six days (Phase One), changing between the experimental or their standard protocol for insulin injection on consecutive days. The outcome was measured by comparing average glycemia and areas under the curve of sample meals, which are doughnut, pizza and mixed vegetable salad. The next three-to-four week period of therapy was evaluated by glycated hemoglobin before and after the intervention (Phase Two).
Expected outcomes are postprandial and complex improvement of diabetes control, similarly to the insulin pump therapy.
Combined prandial insulin therapy (CPIT) applies individual combination of rapid insulin analogue and human insulin according subject's individual estimation of the type of carbohydrates in concrete mixed-meal, based on thorough education. In this study subjects use two applicators, giving two injections before main meals as per basal-bolus therapy. Insulin aspart (Novorapid, Novo Nordisk) and human insulin (Actrapid, Novo Nordisk) are used.
Inclusion criteria pubertal children, adolescents, young adults able to follow instructions, regardless of their long-time compliance willing to undertake a prandial application of two kinds of insulin using two standard insulin applicators. willing to complete detailed meal, insulin and/or combination insulin and hypoglycemia diary throughout the study. Exclusion criteria: acute illness and celiac disease, but not euthyroid autoimmune thyroiditis, defined as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)<4 mIU/l.