Active Ingredient History
Ciprofloxacin (1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid) is the synthetic antimicrobial agent for oral or intravenous administration. Ciprofloxacin is a member of the fluoroquinolone class of antibacterial agents. The bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV (both Type II topoisomerases), which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination. Ciprofloxacin is used to treat a wide variety of infections, including infections of bones and joints, endocarditis, gastroenteritis, malignant otitis externa, respiratory tract infections, cellulitis, urinary tract infections, prostatitis, anthrax, and chancroid. In the United States, ciprofloxacin is pregnancy category C. This category includes drugs for which no adequate and well-controlled studies in human pregnancy exist, and for which animal studies have suggested the potential for harm to the fetus, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks. Fluoroquinolones have been reported as present in a mother's milk and thus passed on to the nursing child. Oral and intravenous ciprofloxacin is approved by the FDA for use in children for only two indications due to the risk of permanent injury to the musculoskeletal system: Inhalational anthrax (postexposure) and Complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli. NCATS
Drug Pricing (per unit)
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