Active Ingredient History

  • Now
Epinephrine is a sympathomimetic catecholamine. It acts as a naturally occurring agonist at both alpha and beta-adrenergic receptors. Three pharmacologic types have been identified: alpha 1-, alpha 2-, and beta-adrenergic receptors. Each of these has three subtypes, characterized by both structural and functional differences. The alpha 2 and beta receptors are coupled negatively and positively, respectively, to adenylyl cyclase via Gi or Gs regulatory proteins, and the alpha 1 receptors modulate phospholipase C via the Go protein. Subtype expression is regulated at the level of the gene, the mRNA, and the protein through various transcriptional and postsynthetic mechanisms. Through its action on alpha-adrenergic receptors, epinephrine lessens the vasodilation and increased vascular permeability that occurs during anaphylaxis, which can lead to loss of intravascular fluid volume and hypotension. Through its action on beta-adrenergic receptors, epinephrine causes bronchial smooth muscle relaxation and helps alleviate bronchospasm, wheezing and dyspnea that may occur during anaphylaxis. Epinephrine also alleviates pruritus, urticaria, and angioedema and may relieve gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms associated with anaphylaxis because of its relaxer effects on the smooth muscle of the stomach, intestine, uterus and urinary bladder. Epinephrine increases glycogenolysis, reduces glucose up take by tissues, and inhibits insulin release in the pancreas, resulting in hyperglycemia and increased blood lactic acid.   NCATS

More Chemistry
  • Mechanisms of Action: Missing data
  • Multi-specific: Missing data
  • Black Box: No
  • Availability: Over the Counter
  • Delivery Methods: Parenteral, Topical
  • Pro Drug: No

Drug Pricing (per unit)

United States

$0.8227 - $291.9813
More Pricing Detail

Note: This drug pricing data is preliminary, incomplete, and may contain errors.

Combination drugs

( epinephrine (levophed), prilocaine (citanest) - other name: citanest forte )
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( epinephrine (levophed), levobupivacaine (chirocaine) - other names: bupivacaine hydrochloride and epinephrine, marcaine hydrochloride w/ epinephrine preservative free, sensorcaine )
( epinephrine (levophed), articaine (Septocaine) - other names: orabloc, ultacan, ultacan forte )
( lidocaine (xylocaine), epinephrine (levophed) - other names: alphacaine hydrochloride w/ epinephrine, iontocaine, lidocaton, lidosite topical system, lignospan forte, lignospan standar, octocaine, xylocaine w/ epinephrine )
(-)-3,4-dihydroxy-alpha-((methylamino)methyl)benzyl alcohol | 4-[(1r)-1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-1,2-benzenediol | adrenaclick | adrenalilne | adrenalin | adrenaline | (-)-adrenaline | (−)-adrenaline | adrenaline bitartrate | adren co | ana-guard | ana-kit | anapen | anaphylactic shock drug kit | asma-vydrin | asthmahaler | auvi-q | bronkaid mist | brovon | emerade | ephephrine | epi e z pen jr | epinefrin | epinefrina | epinephrin | epinephrine | (-)-epinephrine bitartrate | epinephrine bitartrate | epinephrine hcl | epinephrine hydrochloride | epinephrinum | epipen | epipen e z pen | epipen jr | epipen jr. | eppy | gppe inh soln | jext | l-adrenaline | l-epinephrine | levoepinephrine | levo-methylaminoethanolcatechol | nephridine | primatene mist | (r)-(-)-adnephrine | (r)-(-)-adrenaline | (r)-(−)-adrenaline | renoform | (-)-(r)-epinephrine | (r)-(-)-epinephrine | (r)-(-)-epirenamine | riddobron | riddofan | rybarvin | simplene | soln made to rybarvin for | suprarenin | sus-phrine | sus-phrine sulfite-free | twinject | twinject 0.15 | twinject 0.3 | vasoconstrictine


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