Active Ingredient History

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Physostigmine (Phy) is one of the oldest drug isolated from Calabar beans and successfully used for the treatment of glaucoma in 1864. Since then, it has been widely employed for various therapeutic purposes. Recently, it has gained prominence because of its clinical trials in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Physostigmine was used to treat glaucoma. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. Phy is also considered to be a potent prophylactic antidote for organophosphate poisoning. It is a reversible cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor and has a short duration of action. For the last 50 years, numerous authors have shown that pretreatment with Phy would rapidly improve the incapacitating effects of organophosphate intoxication in various animal species. Phy carbamylates to a portion of ChE enzyme and thus protects the enzyme from binding with organophosphate, which are irreversible ChE inhibitors. The carbamylated ChE enzyme decarbamylates to free the enzyme for normal functioning. The rates of decarbamylation of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in plasma and ChE in brain and muscle are different and are related to the half-life of Phy in these tissues. In addition to ChE inhibition, Phy has a direct action on acetylcholine (ACh) receptor ionophore complex by interacting with the ACh-gated cation channels. A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.   NCATS

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antilirium | cogmine | eseridine | eseridine salicylate | eseridine tartrate | eserine | eserine aminoxide | eserine hemisulfate | eserine hemisulfate salt | eserine oxide | eserine oxide salicylate | eserine salicylate | esromiotin | forest pharmaceuticals brand of physostigmine salicylate | geneserine | isopto eserine | physiostigmine | physostigmine | (-)-physostigmine | physostigmine aminoxide | physostigmine salicylate | physostol


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