Active Ingredient History
Olanzapine is a novel antipsychotic agent marketed by Lilly & Co. It has a pleotrophic pharmacology and affects dopaminergic, serotonergic, muscarinic and adrenergic activities. Olanzapine is used to treat the symptoms of psychotic conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (manic depression) in adults and children who are at least 13 years old. Olanzapine is sometimes used together with other antipsychotic medications or antidepressants. The mechanism of action of olanzapine, as with other drugs having efficacy in schizophrenia, is unknown. However, it has been proposed that this drug’s efficacy in schizophrenia is mediated through a combination of dopamine and serotonin type 2 (5HT2) antagonism. The mechanism of action of olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder is unknown. Olanzapine treatment led to rapid phosphorylation of kinases from all three pathways in PC12 cells. Phosphorylation of Akt was blocked with selective inhibitors (wortmannin and LY294002), which implicates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in the signaling cascade. Short-term mitogenic effects of olanzapine were abolished with a selective inhibitor of Akt, but not by inhibition of the ERK pathway. Olanzapine is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system; principally by isozyme 1A2 and to a lesser extent by 2D6. By these mechanisms more than 40% of the oral dose, on average, is removed by the hepatic first-pass effect. Drugs or agents that increase the activity of CYP1A2, notably tobacco smoke, may significantly increase hepatic first-pass clearance of Olanzapine; conversely, drugs which inhibit 1A2 activity (examples: Ciprofloxacin, Fluvoxamine) may reduce Olanzapine clearance. The most common side effects appear to be somnolence and weight gain. About 11% of patients gain weight -especially if on a high starting dose and if they were underweight pre-treatment. Sexual dysfunction is a problem for many patients, although sexual dysfunction in schizophrneia does not appear to be primarily attributable to drugs. NCATS
Drug Pricing (per unit)
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