Active Ingredient History
Glycopyrrolate is a synthetic anticholinergic agent with a quaternary ammonium structure. Glycopyrrolate is a muscarinic competitive antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics. Glycopyrrolate binds competitively to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Like other anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) agents, it inhibits the action of acetylcholine on structures innervated by postganglionic cholinergic nerves and on smooth muscles that respond to acetylcholine but lack cholinergic innervation. These peripheral cholinergic receptors are present in the autonomic effector cells of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, the sinoatrial node, the atrioventricular node, exocrine glands and, to a limited degree, in the autonomic ganglia. Thus, it diminishes the volume and free acidity of gastric secretions and controls excessive pharyngeal, tracheal, and bronchial secretions. Glycopyrrolate antagonizes muscarinic symptoms (e.g., bronchorrhea, bronchospasm, bradycardia, and intestinal hypermotility) induced by cholinergic drugs such as the anticholinesterases. The highly polar quaternary ammonium group of glycopyrrolate limits its passage across lipid membranes, such as the blood-brain barrier, in contrast to atropine sulfate and scopolamine hydrobromide, which are highly non-polar tertiary amines which penetrate lipid barriers easily. Glycopyrrolate is marketed under the brand names Robinul, Robinul Forte, Cuvposa. In October 2015, glycopyrrolate was approved by the FDA for use as a standalone treatment for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as Seebri Neohaler. NCATS
Drug Pricing (per unit)
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