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Ezutromid is an orally administered small molecule utrophin modulator involved in a Phase 2 clinical trial produced by Summit Therapeutics for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). DMD is a fatal x-linked recessive disease affecting approximately 1 in 5000 males and is a designated orphan disease by the FDA and European Medicines Agency. Approximately 1/3 of the children obtain DMD as a result of spontaneous mutation in the dystrophin gene and have no family history of the disease. Dystrophin is a vital component of mature muscle function, and therefore DMD patients have multifarious forms of defunct or deficient dystrophin proteins that all manifest symptomatically as muscle necrosis and eventually organ failure. Ezutromid is theorized to maintain utrophin, a protein functionally and structurally similar to dystrophin that precedes and is replaced by dystrophin during development. Utrophin and dystrophin are reciprocally expressed, and are found in different locations in a mature muscle cell. However, in dystrophin-deficient patients, utrophin was found to be upregulated and is theorized to replace dystrophin in order to maintain muscle fibers. Ezutromid is projected to have the potential to treat all patients suffering with DMD as it maintains the production of utrophin to counteract the lack of dystrophin to retard muscle degeneration. Both the FDA and European Medicines Agency has given ezutromid an orphan drug designation. The FDA Office of Orphan Products and Development offers an Orphan Drug Designation program (ODD) that allows drugs aimed to treat diseases that affect less than 200,000 people in the U.S. monetary incentives such as a period of market exclusivity, tax incentives, and expedited approval processes.   Wikipedia

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